The identity of Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of premenopausal African women has not been studied with the most recent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing techniques. The resultant paucity of information on Lactobacilli leaves a very large gap in the knowledge of the species that may be propagated and used as biotherapeutic agents. This book determined the Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of women of childbearing age, tested if the Lactobacilli isolated exhibited probiotic properties, compared culture-independent and dependent methods in Lactobacillus identification, looked at the safety of known probiotics in an animal model and ascertained the receptivity of probiotics among premenopausal women for the maintenance of urogenital and gastrointestinal health. This book presents a new understanding of the nature of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota of some women in Africa and some strains of the lactobacilli identified possessed probiotic properties for biotherapeutic applications. The book is useful to Microbiologists, Students, and Biomedical Scientists working on Lactic acid bacteria.