The purpose of this book is to describe the problems posed in the formulation of international rules for bays at the present time, to investigate the history of the several interests that have influenced the development of such rules, to trace the efforts that have been made to codify the rules, and to suggest a further refinement of the rules. This book seeks to combine the fruits of the writer's experience as a navigator with those of his studies in international law, geography, history and economics. Although, after study and thought upon the subject, there is likely to arise an initial desire to write a work that is truly definitive, one must resign himself to something of lesser scope. That being so, there is, if anything, an increased demand upon the writer to exercise careful judgment in his research, and in his exposition of the subject. This writer can only hope that he has discharged this responsi bility to the degree that his efforts will have clarified some issues and that what he has set on paper may be of some assistance to others. This writer has attempted to be as objective as possible in his inter pretations, and he has made no attempt to defend the policy of any State. In so doing, he is weil aware of the fact that for broader policy reasons, some of the views expressed herein cannot be officiaily accept ed as bases for action.