Over the last decade, synthetic musk fragrances, which after use enter the environment by different pathways, have been described as a new group of bioaccumulative and persistent xenobiotics. This book gives the first comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the environmental pollution caused by several different synthetic musks. Written by a wide range of international experts in the field, the book summarizes and critically discusses the musk levels in the different compartments of the aquatic environment, in indoor/ambient air, house dust, and in addition, in human samples. The aspects of biotransformation and metabolism of several synthetic musks in the environment and in animals/humans are particularly emphasized. Finally, a provisional toxicological assessment and risk evaluation is given. Many, as yet unpublished, data complete this survey. The volume also points out the gaps, the still missing toxicological and environmental data, and in general, the need for further research work in this field.