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- KurzbeschreibungThis study reports the air pollution vulnerability mapping of Lahore city and provides information about the vulnerability levels of air pollutants at various places of Lahore. The air quality monitoring activities have been carried out at five places of Lahore and each location is monitored for six air pollutants which are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and chlorine by a reagent absorption method. The sources and concentrations have been discussed. The data obtained from sampling at various commercial and residential sites is compared against the past year data and the comparison graphs are plotted to show the trend of these air pollutant. The spatial patterns of monthly mean precipitation and monthly mean temperature have been studied. A public survey has been conducted that shows the public awareness in regard to basic information regarding air pollution. In the end some conclusions and recommendations are given for the purpose to maintain a healthy environment for our citizens, support the strategies, to maintain energy independence and promote an effective role in formulating the environmental policies.
- AutorFouzia Yaqub,Isma Younes,Muhammad Shafiq
- VerlagAnchor Academic Publishing
- Seiten168 Seiten
- Gewicht275 g
- Leseprobe'Text sample:<br>Chapter 2.7 Effects of air pollution:<br>2.7.1 Effects of air pollution on atmospheric properties:<br>Air pollution affects the atmospheric properties in a mercurial way. It reduces the visibility and cause traffic hazards. A visibility of 50-60 km is possible in rural setting i.e., pollutant concentration of upto 20 micrograms per cubic metre. It reduces to 8-10 km in urban setting where 100 micrograms pollutant concentration is present in one cubic metre of air. A typical setting of moderate fog gives 5-7 km visibility whereas heavy pollution gives visibility of only 2-3 km. Three major effects caused by air pollution are reduction of solar radiation, formation of heat islands or greenhouse effect, fogging and precipitation. Urban areas as compared to rural situation receive around 20% less solar radiation which is further reduced by upto 10% during heavy pollution. Greenhouse effect (heat island) is caused by concrete jungles built in urban areas having a high specific heat, these built-up areas absorb more solar radiation / energy and reflect less amount back to atmosphere. Pollutants such as sulphur dioxide in sulphurous smog and ozone in photochemical smog cause greenhouse effect, particularly at night hence pollutants increase incidence of fog formation. High concentrations of sulphur dioxide lead to formation of H2SO4 under humid environment thus resulting in the formation of fog droplets. These fog droplets cause eye irritation and temporary / permanent damage to the respiratory system.<br>2.7.2 Effects of air pollution on human health:<br>The effects of air pollution on human health generally occur as a result of contact of air pollutant and human body. These contacts occur at the surface of skin and exposed membranes. The most important is the contact with the exposed membrane, because of their high absorptive capacity. Airborne gases, vapours, fumes, mist and dust may cause irritation of eye membrane, nose, throat and lungs. Eyes and respiratory system are the major affected areas.<br>The respiratory system consists of lungs and respiratory tract for air passage from nasal cavity to the lungs. The function of respiratory system is to inhale air in to the lungs, to filter the impurity from the inhaled air, to supply oxygen to the blood circulatory system and exhaled carbon dioxide from the blood. Particulate matter can deposit in various regions of the respiratory system depending upon the size of particle.<br>Eye irritation may result when gaseous or particulate material comes and contact with external coat of the eye and with the internal mucus line of the eyelid. Irritation of the eye leads to rubbing which may cause physical damage
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