Sexual violence against women and girls during armed conflict situations is often an extension of the gender discrimination that already exists between men and women in peacetime. Although the entire community suffers the consequences of armed conflict and terrorism, women and girls are particularly affected, because of their status in society and their sex. In this monograph, sexual violence perpetrated against women and girls during armed conflict situations will be examined. Specifically, reference will be made to the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan. It will be discussed that the sexual violence against women and girls, and rape in particular have been used as a tactic of war and women and girls have been the most affected because of their vulnerability. Some of the instruments that give women protection during armed conflict will be examined and it will be revealed that despite the protection, sexual violence has been and is still a feature during armed conflict situations and has been widespread. The consequences of sexual violence against women during armed conflict situations will also be dealt with..