Although students with emotional disturbance are commonly known for their social behavioral deficits, they often have academic deficits as well. Unfortunately, much of the intervention research and many of the practices used with this population focus upon their social deficits and fail to focus upon ameliorating their academic deficits. Clearly, there is a need to identify research-based interventions that focus on improving both the social and academic deficits exhibited by students with emotional disturbance. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of self-monitoring of attention (SMA) versus self- monitoring of performance (SMP), during independent math practice, on the academic and social behaviors of six, elementary-aged, African American males identified as having emotional and/or behavioral disabilities. This book provides a summary of the previous research used to investigate the effects of SMA versus SMP, the methodology used in this study, the results, a discussion of the results, implications for classroom practice, limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future research.