Generally thoracic surgery is not among the favorites of surgeons who are going to become a subspecialist. In my view, one of its main reasons is great ambiguity in diagnosis and decision making of thoracic surgery patients. These patients should be made decision upon them in a team work including thoracic surgeon, pulmonologist, radiologist, cardiologist and anesthetist. This team is not available in every surgery center, therefore management of these patients specially for young surgeons become too difficult and problematic. Considering facing to critical patients that need fast and precise decision while no consultant team is available, justifies why thoracic surgeons are willing to practice in academic centers. I had encountered with this problem and decided to pass this obstacle by publishing my personal experiences through a pilot study. Lambert Academic Publishing helped me to convert my work to this book. This book is a concise, illustrated, practical and algorithmic book specially for independent practice. My sense of gratitude ordered me to send my thanks to LAP.