Latvia had a brief experience with democracy and party pluralism between 1920 and 1934, when a national authoritarian regime took over. After restoration of Latvia s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, a large number of political groups and parties formed. Do they reflect cleavages and contrasts that structured political oppositions in Latvia in the 1920s and 1930s? Stein Rokkan and Seymour Martin Lipset (1967) found that party systems of Western democracies reflected fundamental cleavages that emerged in the course of history. The most significant change in the Latvian party system of today is the apparent absence of the class conflict. The salient cleavage since 1990 has a strong nationality component, its roots stretching far down in history. This book contains a description and analysis of the Latvian party systems, and identifies tentatively the most important historical conflicts and cleavages involved in the structuring of oppositions. This work may be useful to everyone interested in politics, history and Society of Latvia and the Baltic countries, as well as in party systems and democratic political development.