Private land-use decisions can have profound effects on ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, aesthetics, and the carbon cycle. Voluntary market-based incentives to regulate land use have the potential to bring about a more socially optimal use of land. An implementation of these policies in the Rocky Mountain States requires an understanding of the effects of private profits on landowner choices. Econometric modeling is challenging in this region due to a heterogeneous land base, but is essential to understand the potential impacts of market-based incentives for land use changes. Land-use incentives could be a powerful tool in meeting carbon sequestration or other environmental needs.