Carbon has always been a unique and intriguing material from a funda mental standpoint and, at the same time, a material with many technological uses. Carbon-based materials, diamond, graphite and their many deriva tives, have attracted much attention in recent years for many reasons. Ion implantation, which has proven to be most useful in modifying the near surface properties of many kinds of materials, in particular semiconductors, has also been applied to carbon-based materials. This has yielded, mainly in the last decade, many scientifically interesting and technologically impor tant results. Reports on these studies have been published in a wide variety of journals and topical conferences, which often have little disciplinary overlap, and which often address very different audiences. The need for a review to cover in an integrated way the various diverse aspects of the field has become increasingly obvious. Such a review should allow the reader to get an overview of the research that has been done thus far, to gain an ap preciation of the common features in the response of the various carbon to ion impact, and to become aware of current research oppor allotropes tunities and unresolved questions waiting to be addressed. Realizing this, and having ourselves both contributed to the field, we decided to write a review paper summarizing the experimental and theoretical status of ion implantation into diamond, graphite and related materials.