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- KurzbeschreibungThe emergence of powerful hand held devices like cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), pagers coupled with the advancement of wireless communication system have paved the way for a variety of mobile computing and wireless networking technology recently. The history of wireless networking goes to early days Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency packet radio network.<br>The advantage of wireless networking is its ability to support user mobility and has created a new breadth to problem solving in this domain, resulting in unpredictable resource requirement and uncertainty in network connectivity. Solutions to these problems have boosted the market for wireless services.<br>Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of mobile devices forming a network without any supporting infrastructure or prior organization. Nodes in the network should be able to sense and discover with nearby nodes. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network, multiple network "hops" may be needed for one node to another (source to destination or intermediate node) across the network. There are number of characteristics in wireless ad hoc networks, such as the dynamic network topology, limited bandwidth and energy constraint in the network. Mobile ad hoc network plays an important role in different applications such as military operations to provide communication between squads, in emergency cases in out-of-the-way places, in medical control etc.<br>Routing protocols play a significant role in the implementation of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). Due to the characteristics of mobility of ad hoc networks it is crucial to find a path or route from the source to the destination node and perform the communication between nodes for a long period of time.<br>In MANET, a number of routing protocols using a variety of routing algorithms has been proposed - for example Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), Location Aided Routing (LAR) and periodic (proactive) protocols such as Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), Distributed Bellman Ford, where member nodes exchange routing information and know a current route to each destination periodically. Also, several protocols uses both reactive and proactive mechanisms, such as Zone Resolution Protocol (ZRP) Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) etc.
- AutorSuman Paul
- VerlagAnchor Academic Publishing
- Seiten40 Seiten
- Gewicht79 g
- LeseprobeText sample:<br>Chapter 3: Applications of MANET:<br>With the increase of use portable devices as well as progress in wireless communication, ad hoc networking is gaining importance. Ad hoc networking can be applied anywhere, where there is no communication infrastructure or the existing infrastructure is expensive or difficult to implement. Ad hoc networking allows the devices to maintain links to the network as well as easily adding as well as removing devices to and from the network. The set of applications for MANETs is diverse, ranging from large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic networks, to small, static networks that are constrained by power sources. Besides the inheritance applications that move from traditional infrastructure environment into the ad hoc context, a great deal of new services can and will be generated for the new environment. Typical applications include:<br>3.1 Defense (Military battlefield applications):<br>In modern battlefield requires robust and reliable (secure) communication military battlefield in many forms. Most communicating nodes are installed in mobile vehicles used for defense. Defense personnel could carry telecomm devices that could talk to a wireless base station or directly to other telecom devices if they are within the radio range. However these forms of communication are considered to be primitive. At times when wireless base station is destroyed by enemy, a soldier will be prohibited from communicating with other soldiers if the called party is not within the radio range. This is the scenario where mobile ad hoc networks come into play. Ad hoc networks are well known as self organizing networks since they are robust when nodes disappear due to destruction or mobility. Through multi hop communication soldiers can communicate to remote soldiers via data hoping and data forwarding from one radio device to another.<br>3.2 Sensor Networks:<br>Another application of MANETs is sensor networks. This technology is a network composed of a very large number of small sensors. These can be used to detect any number of properties of an area. Examples include temperature, pressure, toxins, pollutions, etc. Applications are the measurement of ground humidity for agriculture, forecast of earthquakes. The capabilities of each sensor are very limited, and each must rely on others in order to forward data to a central computer. Individual sensors are limited in their computing capability and are prone to failure and loss. Mobile ad hoc sensor networks could be the key to future homeland security.<br>3.3 Automotive Applications:<br>Automotive networks are widely discussed currently
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