This manuscript comprehensively covers the state of the science and theory based on the flame retardancy of fibrous materials such as cotton. Owning to the importance of phosphorus and halogen containing flame retardant systems emphasis has given to explore how such systems work and what can be done to improve it. Halogen-based compounds are not environmentally friendly because they generate toxic gases, which are endocrine disruptive. Recently, phosphorus-nitrogen based flame retardant systems have attracted more attention in the academia and industry because of their good thermal stability, low toxicity, and superior performance. Hence, flame retardants that are durable to washing, halogen-free, efficient in performance, easy to apply and benign to the environment are in high demand. Accordingly, synthesis, characterization and application of three novel monomers have been discussed. This manuscript will be an asset to have for people interested in the field of functional finishes in general and flame retardant finishes in specific.