The Report is of haemoglobinopathy varies between 3 and 17% in different populations of India. The cumulative gene frequency of the three most predominant abnormal haemoglobins, i.e. sickle cell, haemoglobin D and haemoglobin E has been found to be 5.35% in India. The current status and challenges of haemoglobinopathies have also been highlighted and discussed with special reference to India. Unfortunately, there is no attempt at the national level to enlarge the epidemiological database, establishing specific programmes for screening populations at risk, imparting genetic counselling and establishing special treatment centres to alleviate the sufferings of dwindling masses in India.