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- Kurzbeschreibung<p>This volume brings together a group of essays that explore early modern theories of composite substances and their relevance to early modern views on the nature of plants and animals (both human and non-human). The metaphysics of composite substances was a unifying topic at the heart of quite diverse issues in early modern ontologies of living beings. For instance, it was applied in explanations of both the complexity and the unity of a living being, in conceptions of the structure of plant and animal seeds, in considerations concerning the nature and mutability of biological species, in exploring the physiological function of imagination in biological reproduction, in characterising the beings and processes responsible for diseases, and in understanding the relation between living beings and divine causation. While pre-modern in inspiration, the metaphysics of composite substances played an intriguing and still not well-enough understood role in the formation of modern philosophy. <br>Thus, the present volume focuses on thinkers who are paradigmatic as transitional figures-figures who serve to understand the complex process by means of which non-mechanistic medieval conceptions of the structure of living beings were superseded in the second half of the seventeenth century by mechanistic conceptions of the structure of living beings.</p>
- AutorAnika Lutz
- Seiten302 Seiten
- Gewicht593 g
- Leseprobe'Introduction<br>Consider the following claims:<br>What makes the paintings of William Turner so beautiful is the precise representation of light.<br>A hiking tour in autumn is especially pleasant in virtue of the bright colors of the leaves.<br>This dish is delicious in virtue of the combination of sweet and sour components and the sensitive use of spices.<br>You ought not to torture because torture is wrong. Torture is wrong in virtue of its being cruel and inhuman.<br>In these examples a common intuition is presented, namely the intuition that objects instantiate normative properties in virtue of instantiating other properties. Without instantiating certain other properties, an object would not instantiate the specific normative properties it does. The instantiation of other properties is somehow necessary for the instantiation of the normative properties. As we might say, the instantiation of other properties brings it about, is responsible for, or makes it the case that the object instantiates the normative properties it does. It is this widely shared "in-virtue-of intuition" with respect to the instantiation of normative properties that functions as the starting point of this book.<br>Naturally, the first question that comes to mind when considering this in-virtue-of intuition is whether it is actually correct. Basically, there seem to be two ways in which the intuition could be incorrect: if normative properties are never instantiated, then, of course, normative properties cannot be instantiated in virtue of other properties being instantiated. Hence, we have to accept some sort of normative realism - objects do in fact instantiate normative properties - for the intuition to be correct. However, there is also another way in which the intuition could turn out to be incorrect: perhaps sometimes objects instantiate normative properties "just like that" or "brutely", as we might say. Perhaps there are some cases in which it is not other properties that bring it about that an object instantiates a certain normative property - rather, the object just instantiates the normative property and there is nothing more to say.<br>In the following I will not argue that the in-virtue-of intuition is in fact correct. I will more or less assume that the intuition is on the right track. My question will rather concern what makes this intuition true. What kind of relation is this "in-virtue-of" or "making" relation that holds between the instantiation of other properties and the instantiation of a certain normative property? It is this question which constitutes the center of this book
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