Recent economic literature has linked female headship of households with poverty. Female-Headed Households (FHH) have increasingly drawn the attention of scholars and policymakers, in part because of the unprecedented increase of this type of household, in part because of the state of poverty associated with them. Recent empirical literature has been examining the nature of intra-household resource allocation, and how labor is distributed accordingly across different types of households (single / two headed, male / female headed, etc.). This book expands on the above theory in transitional economies, for which Vietnam has been chosen as the optimum candidate. The study differentiates the effects of the theory on commune type villages in the north with that of the more developed, capitalistic ones in the south of Vietnam. This book also integrates two pieces of literature to examine intra-household bargaining and female headship, which help examine the marginal effect of male and female labor from the perspective of a single FHH vs. the marginal effect of male and female labor in a two-person/parent male-headed household.