This book underscores ecological democracy as a conceptual tool through five interrelated chapters. Forest-dependent communities of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico were chosen for this study due to their many successful common forestry arrangements. In Chapter 2, a discussion of relevant theoretical literature leads to a conceptual definition of ecological democracy. Several hindering and facilitating factors that influence the emergence and consolidation of ecological democracy are compared. In Chapter 3, the intersection of forest management, forest trade, and local democracy are examined through examples of Mexican forest-based communities. In Chapter 4, two guiding questions are whether local political mobilization occurs in response to changes in forest management regimes, and whether indigenous forms of forest management illustrate ecological democracy. This book concludes with several key findings of potential relevance for those concerned with environmental decision-making. The appendix is an introspective reflection on field research methodologies and associated challenges.