Child mortality is a critical issue in the fields of global health and development economics. This is a macro indicator of overall community health as well as a micro indicator of household. This book seeks to determine the correlates of child mortality in Bangladesh since this is important in the formulation of programs to improve the survival and health of children. Also inequalities in mortality rates and health care seeking behavior by socioeconomic classes are investigated because sharp inequalities among the rich and poor can become a significant obstacle to progress toward reaching the Millennium Development Goal 4 target. Findings from this empirical study suggest that attention should be paid to the significant mortality factors as well as special concentration on monitoring under-five child mortality among different socioeconomic classes is needed. The analysis would be helpful for health program planners to take appropriate actions for reducing under-five mortality and thus by scaling up interventions rapid gains in child survival could be produced.