The rise of electronic commerce and the simultaneous decline of prices for information technology products have led to a re-evaluation of traditional business models. Consequently, the interest in the concept has been growing in numerous practical and academic fields. However, until today much ambiguity remains concerning a consistent definition and the elements contained in the business model construct. In parallel, the importance of human resource management increased with the shift towards today's information and knowledge economies. The notion of human assets as being crucial for attaining sustainable competitive advantage has become ever more accepted. Yet, how human resource management must be structured to effectively support companies in attaining their goals is much argued about. Therefore, this book explores the business model concept and reviews related research. Moreover, in an empirical analysis of 94 companies it investigates whether business models define the setting in which companies are operating and, hence, influence the composition of human resource management functions.