The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 13 taxa (11 species and two sub subspecies) belonging to the Genus Galium of the family Rubiaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material received on loan from KEW, WAG, L, BR, and collections kept in Cairo University Herbarium (CAI), Flora and phytotaxonomy Research Department, CAIM, Horticulture Research Institute, ARC, Ministry of Agricultural, Dokki, Great Cairo, Egypt. (CAIM), Assiut University Herbarium (proposed abbreviation, AST) and Sohag University Herbarium (SHG). In addition, fresh material of most taxa is studied and field observations are recorded from several localities of Mediterranean, Sinai, Nil Valley, and Elba regions in Egypt. Taxa of that Genus have been studied by using different biosystematics methods. In the systematic treatment 13 taxa are recognized, presenting up-to-date nomenclature literature citations, type specimens and their location, synonyms specimens examined, and distribution maps. Some taxonomic and nomenclature problems in G. setaceum and spurium are discussed and changes proposed.