This book explores the relationship between the 1950s policy of assimilation and the development of criminal justice approaches to Australian Aboriginal people. Several areas of criminal justice are examined: the provocation defence, the recognition of customary law, sentencing and alcohol regulation. These areas have been particularly relevant to confrontations between Aboriginal people and the criminal justice system. This book argues that, in some areas, criminal justice principles developed in the 1950s in response to the policy of assimilation continue to influence the interaction between Aboriginal people and the criminal law. However, it also contends that more recently criminal law has sometimes aimed to restore and repair Aboriginal people to their own communities. This later approach may open up a space for Aboriginal people to become more involved in the criminal justice process and, from this involvement, a form of weak legal pluralism may be emerging. The analysis provides new insights about approaches to criminal justice that may be helpful to lawyers, policy makers and historians working in Aboriginal criminal justice.