Malleus Maleficarum Maleficas et earum haeresim ut phramea potentissima conterens
Paris/Jehan Petit, 1535. Ledereinband
Bemerkungen: Latin title: Malleus Maleficarum Maleficas et earum haeresim ut phramea potentissima conterens, English title: The Hammer of Witches which destroyeth witches and their heresy as with a two-edged sword, binder annotated Malleus Maleficarum 1535, title page with woodcut printers mark of Jehan Petit, Paris, 16th century,. Condition: Well worn, browning, some notations including page numbers, some worm holes particularly to back fly. Measurements: 13,5cmx9cmx3,5cm Collation: 604 pages plus one blank leave, complete Extremely rare edition of the highly sought after Malleus Maleficarum. Currently the only edition from the 16th century for sale. Do not miss this opportunity to own one of the most sought after books and the second most read book after the bible! About the malleus maleficarum: The Malleus Maleficarum (commonly rendered into English as "Hammer of [the] Witches"; Der Hexenhammer in German) is a treatise on the prosecution of witches, written in 1486 by Heinrich Kramer, a German Catholic clergyman. The book was first published in Speyer, Germany, in 1487. James Sprenger is also often attributed as an author, but some scholars now believe that he became associated with the Malleus Maleficarum largely as a result of Kramer's wish to lend his book as much official authority as possible. The main purpose of the Malleus was to systematically refute arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, to discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, to claim that those who practised witchcraft were more often women than men, and to educatemagistrates on the procedures that could find them out and convict them. Background Magic, sorcery and witchcraft had long been condemned by the Church, whose attitude towards witchcraft was elaborated on in the canon Episcopi written in about 900 AD. It stated that witchcraft and magic did not really exist, and that those who believed in such things "had been seduced by the Devil in dreams and visions into old pagan errors". Until about 1400 it was rare for anyone to be accused of witchcraft, but heresies had become a major problem within the Church by the 13th century, and by the 15th century belief in witches was widely accepted in European society. Those convicted of witchcraft typically suffered penalties no more harsh than public penances such as a day in the stocks, but their persecution became more brutal following the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum, as witchcraft became increasingly accepted as a real and dangerous phenomenon. In 1484 Heinrich Kramer had made one of the first attempts at prosecuting alleged witches in the Tyrol region. It was not a success: he was expelled from the city of Innsbruck and dismissed by the local bishop as a "senile old man". Kramer was opposed by the local clergy partly because of his eccentric behavior (as the Bishop of Innsbruck's verdict indicates), and partly because he didn't hold any official position as an Inquisitor despite his efforts to make himself into one. According to Diarmaid MacCulloch, writing the book was Kramer's act of self-justification and revenge. Some scholars have suggested that following the failed efforts in Tyrol, Kramer and James Sprenger (also known as Jacob or Jakob Sprenger) requested and received a papal bullSummis desiderantes affectibus in 1484. It allegedly gave full papal approval for the Inquisition to prosecute what was deemed to be witchcraft in general and for Kramer and Sprenger specifically. Malleus Maleficarum was written in 1486 and the papal bull was included as part of the preface. Publication The Malleus Maleficarum was published by Kramer (Latinised as "Institoris") and Sprenger in 1487. Scholars have debated how much Sprenger contributed to the work. Some say his role was minor, and that the book was written almost entirely by Kramer, who used the name of Sprenger for its prestige only, while others say there is little evidence for this claim. The preface also includes an approbation from the University of Cologne's Faculty of Theology. The authenticity of the Cologne endorsement was first questioned by Joseph Hansen but has not been universally questioned; Christopher S. Mackay rejects Hansen's theory as a misunderstanding. Nevertheless, it is well established by sources outside the "Malleus" that the university's theology faculty as a whole condemned the book for unethical procedures and for contradicting Catholic theology on a number of important points. Hence the Malleus' claims about an endorsement from the same faculty is at best a misleading approval granted by only a small percentage of the faculty, and at worst a complete forgery. Scholarly opinion is divided on the latter point, but there is general agreement that even if it were genuine it was misrepresented by Kramer, as was the copy of "Summis desiderantes" whose inclusion implies a Papal endorsement of the "Malleus" although "Summis desiderantes" had been issued before the "Malleus" was written. The Malleus Maleficarum drew on earlier sources such as Johannes Nider's treatiseFormicarius, written 1435/37. The book became the handbook for secular courts throughout Renaissance Europe, but was not used by the Inquisition, which even cautioned against relying on the work. Between 1487 and 1520 the work was published thirteen times. It was again published between 1574 and 1669 a total of sixteen times. Regardless of the authenticity of the endorsements appearing at the beginning of the book, their presence contributed to the popularity of the work.
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